Soal dan Pembahasan Main Idea, Purpose, and Conclusion

TEXT 1
Parents send their children to school with the best of intentions, believing that formal education is what kids need to become productive, happy adults. Many parents do have qualms about how well schools are performing, but the conventional wisdom is that these issues can be resolved with more money, better teachers, more challenging curricula, or more rigorous tests. But what if the real problem is school itself? The unfortunate fact is that one of our most cherished institutions is, by its very nature, failing our children and our society.

Children are required to be in school, where their freedom is greatly restricted, far more than most adults would tolerate in their workplaces. In recent decades, we’ve been compelling them to spend ever more time in this kind of setting, and there’s strong evidence that this is causing psychological damage to many of them. And as scientists have investigated how children naturally learn, they’ve realized that kids do so most deeply and fully, and with greatest enthusiasm, in conditions that are almost opposite to those of school.

Compulsory education has been a fixture of our culture now for several generations. President Obama and Secretary of Education Arne Duncan are so enamored of it that they want even longer school days and years. Most people assume that the basic design of today’s schools emerged from scientific evidence about how children learn. But nothing could be further from the truth.

Schools as we know them today are a product of history, not of research. The blueprint for them was developed during the Protestant Reformation, when schools were created to teach children to read the Bible, to believe Scripture without questioning it, and to obey authority figures without questioning them.When schools were taken over by the state, made compulsory, and directed toward secular ends, the basic structure and methods of teaching remained unchanged. Subsequent attempts at reform have failed because they haven’t altered the basic blueprint. The top- down, teach-and-test method, in which learning is motivated by a system of rewards and punishments rather than by curiosity or by any real desire to know, is well designed for indoctrination and obedience training but not much else. It’s no wonder that many of the world’s greatest entrepreneurs and innovators either left school early (like Thomas Edison) or said they hated school and learned despite it, not because of it (like Albert Einstein).

1. What is the purpose of the text?
A. To describe how American children learn at school and in real-life settings.
B. To remind American parents that the formal school is basically a product of culture.
C. To tell readers that formals schools in the USA has been constantly developed for a long time.
D. To review how compulsory education in the USA has met parents expectation.
E. To discuss if the American school system is truly effective to educate children.
Pembahasan:
Teks di atas ditulis untuk mendiskusikan apakah sistem sekolah di Amerika benarbenar efektif untuk mendidik anak- anak. Jawaban bisa dilihat dari ide pokok bacaan tersebut. Jawaban: E

2. What is the topic of the text above?
A. Regulations for American children to stay longer in school.
B. Parents expectation on reformation in American School system.
C. Restrictions in children’s freedom at the US schools.
D. Doubts of the effectiveness of American school system.
E. Absence of a research based school system in the USA.
Pembahasan:
Dari ide pokok dapat dianalisis bahwa topik bacaan di atas tentang keraguan efektivitas sistem pendidikan di Amerika terhadap siswanya.  Jawaban: D

TEXT 2 
Text A 
Advocates for virtual education say that it has the power to transform an archaic K-!@ system of schooling in the primary and secondary levels. Instead of blackboards, school houses, and a six-hour school day, interactive technology will personalize learning to meet each student’s need, ensure all students have access to quality teaching, extend learning opportunities to all hours of the day and all days of the week, and innovate and improve over time.

Indeed, virtual education has the potential not only to help solve many of the most pressing issues in K-12 education, but to do so in a cost-effective manner. More than 1 million public education students now take online courses, and as more districts and state initiate and expand online offerings, the numbers continue to grow. But to date, there is a little research or publicity available data on the outcomes from K-12 online learning. And even when data are publicly available, as is the case with virtual charter schools, analysts and education officials have paid limited attention to-and have few tools for analyzing- performance.

Text B 
Virtual education is in a period of rapid growth, as school district, for profit providers, and nonprofit start-ups all move into online learning world. But without rigorous oversight, a thousand flowers blooming will also yield a lot of weeds.

Real accountability, including the means to identify and end ineffective practices and programs, must be constantly balanced with the time required to refine new, immature technologies and approaches to learning. Both virtual education advocates and education policy makers should learn from nearly two decades of experience with charter schooling, another reform movement predicated on innovation and change within public education. After nearly 20 years of practice, the charter school movement provides important lesson on how to ensure the improved student outcome remain the top priority

3. The theme of these two texts would most likely be about …
A. modern schooling
B. virtual education
C. alternative learning
D. innovative education
E. technology-based learning
Pembahasan:
Dari kata kunci yang sering muncul dan juga ide pokok bacaan tersebut, tema yang tepat untuk bacaan di atas adalah ‘virtual education’.  Jawaban: B

4. It can be summarized from those two texts that ….
A. Any type of learning should be focused on student’s improvement.
B. More students have the chance to learn through online education.
C. Online learning both offers promising sides and faces challenges.
D. Sophisticated learning like online education ensures better outcomes.
E. Online learning is cheaper as it can widen student’s learning chance.
Pembahasan:
Dari dua teks di atas dapat ditarik kesimpulan bahwa pembelajaran secara online lebih mudah karena dapat memperluas kesempatan pembelajaran siswa.  Jawaban: E

TEXT 3 
The process of global warming and the destructive nature of wildfires have created a deadly cycle in which one constantly contributes to the other. Forest fires and global warming have created a dangerous relationship. The link between these two forces has become clear in recent years. As the climate becomes warmer, forests will become drier, spawning the perfect environment for fires. In addition, as forest fires continue and gain intensity, the trees release more carbon into the atmosphere which contribute to the greenhouse effect and which therefore cause global warming.

The increase in forest fires can now be seen as a factor which contributes to global warming. Trees, in the carbon cycle, are labeled a “sink” or a store for carbon. The ability of trees to store carbon dioxide has helped to reduce the amount of CO2 that is pumped into the atmosphere. But, now that more trees are being burned through increased forest fires, this store carbon is being released and the CO2 becomes part of the greenhouse gases effect. So we believe that extra fires intensify global warming. Furthermore, carbon is released in the decomposition of the trees after the fire. There is no doubt the global warming and forest fires are linked to rising temperature.

Global warming is a process which has been occurring for years and whose effects have been more intensively felt by all of living creature. Forest fires have also been recorded for years, but as mentioned they are natural process. Therefore, it would be reasonable to attack global warming first. Much work has been done already to solve this problem. Some plants to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, such as Kyoto Protocol has been in place for years, but they have shown little results.

Some experts who care about global warming say that the solutions must start at home. People, who suffer from immediate effect of global warming, must realize that their day activities contributes to climate change. But, reducing what is called “carbon footprint” is not difficult. It can be easy as changing travel methods, instead of driving to school or working everyday, biking or walking. Or it can be as easy as buying an energy efficient appliance or switching the light off in rooms which are not being used.

Leadership from ordinary people is what it will take to fight against global warming. People must educate each other on these harmful effects and make them known. But, this process will continue to damage forest around the world unless something is done to reduce the effects of global warming.

5. What Is the topic of the text?
A. Global warming and the forest fires as factors contributing to rising temperatures.
B. The process of global warming and the destructive nature
C. Home solution in anticipate the rising world temperature.
D. The greenhouse effect as a cause of global warming and the forest fires.
E. The effect of global warming on the human civilization.
Pembahasan:
Topik yang paling tepat dari bacaan tersebut adalah pemanasan global dan kebakaran hutan sebagai faktor penyebab peningkatan suhu. Untuk mencari jawaban ini bisa dengan melihat ide pokok pada kalimat pertama di setiap paragraf bacaan tersebut.  Jawaban: A

6. It is implied in the text that ….
A. people can comfortably survive living in the very hot world
B. the number of scientists on global warming increases every year
C. world rising temperature can only be stopped by intelligent experts
D. the education on the danger of global warming has been well introduce
E. all people must be effectively involved in saving the world from destruction
Pembahasan:
Dari bacaan di atas disimpulkan bahwa semua orang harus ikut serta dalam menyelamatkan bumi dari kerusakan. Jawaban ini dapat dilihat dari ide pokok setiap paragraf dan paragraf terakhir.  Jawaban: E

7. The purpose of the text is to ….
A. Report the danger of global warming for the survival of living creature.
B. Persuade the reader to fight against the world rising temperature.
C. Argue for the importance of the efforts to stop global warming
D. Compare between global warming and the forest fires.
E. Describe the effects of global warming. 
Pembahasan:
Soal di atas menanyakan tujuan dari teks tersebut. Dari ide pokok dan juga struktur paragraf bacaan tersebut, dapat disimpulkan bahwa tujuan bacaan tersebut untuk membujuk (persuade) pembaca melawan pemanasan dunia yang meningkat. Jawaban: B

TEXT 4 
Our legal department requires a mature, versatile secretary who will report to one senior counsel and one assistant counsel. The successful candidate should have a solid background in organizational work, advance skill in shorthand and data processing, combined with at least three years of legal secretarial training. Some offers excellent opportunities for personal qualification, beginning at the minimum of $2,000 per month. A superior benefit package and an attractive incentive program are included. Begin at once. Interviews will be held Mondays through Friday, May 12th to 16th.

8. From the text we may conclude that the company needs a qualified secretary for its business which deals with ….
A. counseling in life insurance
B. insurance in real estate
C. legal secretarial training
D. organizational work in insurance companies
E. shorthand and data processing skills
Pembahasan:
Bacaan di atas membahas tentang perusahaan yang membutuhkan sekretaris untuk bisnis perusahaan tersebut yang berhubungan dengan pelatihan sekretaris secara legal.  Jawaban: C

9. From the text we may conclude that the company needs a qualified secretary for its business which deals with ….
A. counseling in life insurance
B. insurance in real estate
C. legal secretarial training
D. organizational work in insurance companies
E. shorthand and data processing skills
Pembahasan:
Bacaan di atas membahas tentang perusahaan yang membutuhkan sekretaris untuk bisnis perusahaan tersebut yang berhubungan dengan pelatihan sekretaris secara legal.  Jawaban: C

TEXT 5 
Earthquakes are one of the most deadly natural disaster. What causes them? Geologists explain them in terms of theory known as plate tectonics. Continents are floating apart from each other; this is referred to as the continental drift. About sixty miles below the surface of the sea, there is a emimolten bed of rock over which plates, or slabs, carry continents and sea floors at a rate of several inches a year. As the plates separate from each other, a new sea floor is formed by the molten matter that was formerly beneath. Volcanic islands and large mountain ranges are created by this type of movement.TEXT 5 Earthquakes are one of the most deadly natural disaster. What causes them? Geologists explain them in terms of theory known as plate tectonics. Continents are floating apart from each other; this is referred to as the continental drift. About sixty miles below the surface of the sea, there is a emimolten bed of rock over which plates, or slabs, carry continents and sea floors at a rate of several inches a year. As the plates separate from each other, a new sea floor is formed by the molten matter that was formerly beneath. Volcanic islands and large mountain ranges are created by this type of movement.

10. From the text we can conclude that the movement of plate tectonics …
A. destroy existing continents
B. are felt sixty miles below sea surface
C. cause changes on earth
D. is good for volcanic islands
E. form new sea floors every years
Pembahasan:
Perpindahan lempengan tektonik menyebabkan perubahan bumi. Jawaban bisa didapat dengan menyimpulkan isi teks tersebut.  Jawaban: C

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