Soal dan Pembahasan SIMAK UI Bahasa Inggris 221

__________. Scientists are now able to create new forms of life in the laboratory because of the development of gene splicing - the joining of genes. On the one hand, the ability to create life in the laboratory could greatly benefit humankind. One beneficial application of gene splicing is in agriculture. For example, researchers have engineered a more nutritious type of rice that could help alleviate the serious problem of vitamin A deficiency. It is estimated that 124 million children worldwide lack vitamin A, putting them at risk of permanent blindness and other health issues.
However, not everyone is positive about gene-splicing technology. Some people feel that it could have terrible consequences. In fact a type of corn engineered to kill a certain insect pest also  threatened to wipe out desirable monarch butterflies. In another accident, a genetically engineered type of corn that was approved only for animal consumption because it was toxic to humans accidentally cross-pollinated with corn grown for humans. As a result many countries banned imports of genetically modified corn for several years.
Gunakan Petunjuk A dalam menjawab soal nomor 41 sampai nomor 42.
41. Which of the following sentences should begin the paragraph?
(A) There has been some new promising development in genetic engineering.
(B) Genetic research has produced both exciting and frightening possibilities.
(C) The benefits of genetic engineering have been proven recently by scientists.
(D) Genetic engineering should not be developed as it disturbs natural ecology.
(E) The limit of genetic engineering is the human mind itself.

42. This paragraph may be followed by a paragraph
that discusses ____.
(A) ways to prevent the undesirable effects of genetic splicing
(B) views about genetic engineering based on religious ground
(C) the reasons for avoiding genetic engineering
(D) reasons why people must support genetic engineering
(E) the process of the development of genetic engineering

The unmistakable buzz of a bumblebee is one of the quintessential sounds of British summertime. However, this slender sound and faint utterance is under threat because bumblebees are in crisis. Of the 25 species native to Britain, three have already been declared extinct, five are designated UK Biodiversity Action Plan priority species, and many more have undergone major range contractions. The great yellow bumblebee, Bombus distinguendus, for example, is now restricted to northern Scotland, Orkney and the Hebrides, and the shrill carder bee, Bombus sylvarum, which was once common throughout southern Britain, now exists only in seven small groups. In addition, as these populations become more isolated they can become inbred, which increases the risk of further extinctions. At the end of summer all the bumblebees in a colony die, apart from the virgin queens who mate and then leave the nest to hibernate over winter. In the spring a queen will make a new nest, lay eggs and then raise the first batch of workers. This annual cycle depends on there being enough pollen and nectar to sustain the queen as she establishes her nest and team of workers as the colony grows. Pollen is a protein-rich fuel that is key to helping over-wintered queens to kickstart their reproductive systems ready and for the development of larvae. Nectar, on the other hand, is a sugar-rich fuel which is converted to honey to feed adult bees. The bees make honey by adding to the nectar in their honey sacs an enzyme called invertase, which converts sucrose sugars to a mixture of glucose and fructose. Once the workers are developed, they take over the foraging and the queen concentrates on laying eggs. Later in the year, if the colony has been successful and reaches a large enough size, the queen will produce male eggs and some female eggs are raised as new queens. A lack of resources is thought to be the critical factor that is affecting bumblebee populations, and it is related to the loss of wild flowers, both in the countryside and in vast areas of suburban gardens. The biggest impact has been the availability of food and drink, in particular the continuity of supplies throughout the colony cycle. Although nectar is available from a wide range of plants, the bees can be much more choosy about where they collect pollen from, sometimes restricting this to very few flowering plants. In Scotland, overwintered queens of the declining and beautiful bilberry bumblebee focus on bilberry in spring. Other species may focus on legumes such as red clover and bird’s-foot
trefoil. Sadly, because the UK has lost 98% of its flower-rich grasslands, this has been devastating for some bumblebee species.
Gunakan Petunjuk A dalam menjawab soal nomor 43 sampai nomor 47.
43. What is the best title of the passage?
(A) Various Kinds of Bumblebees
(B) The Impacts of the Loss of Wild Flowers
(C) The Falling-Off Population of Bumblebees
(D) The Development of Bumblebees Population
(E) The Availability of Bumblebee Species in the UK

44. What can be inferred from the passage about the lifecycle of bumblebees?
(A) The new workers are brought up by the male bees.
(B) Bumblebees hibernate throughout winter to survive.
(C) The virgin queens survive the summer and then continue the reproduction.
(D) All the bumblebees in a colony die when summer ends.
(E) The continuation of the lifecycle depends on the skill of the queens in collecting food.

45. Which of the following statements about the passage is FALSE?
(A) When the colony has been thriving and reached a sufficient size, the queen will lay male eggs.
(B) Some female eggs are laid to produce new queen bees.
(C) The declining population of bumblebees has been attributed to the inadequate food resource.
(D) Nectar and pollen are still widely available even for the choosy species of bumblebees.
(E) A large percentage of the UK area has lost its ability to supply food for bumblebees.

46. The word ’designated’ in line 3 can best be replaced by ____.
(A) voted
(B) preferred
(C) restricted
(D) chosen
(E) clasified

47. Why did the writer mention the queens of bilberry bumblebee?
(A) To describe how a bumblebee may look like
(B) To give example of bees which can survive the winter
(C) To show one species of bees whose food resource is declining
(D) To give an example of a species of bumblebees which is declining
(E) To give an example of bees which are very selective about source of pollen

Sequoyah was a young Cherokee Indian, son of a white trader and an Indian squaw. At an early age, he became __ (48) __ by "the talking leaf", an expression that he used to describe the white man’s written records. __ (49) __ many believed this "talking leaf" to be a gift from the Giant Spirit, Sequoyah refused to accept that theory. Like other Indians of the period, he was __ (50) __, but his determination to remedy the situation led to the invention of a unique 86-character alphabet based on the sound patterns that he heard. His family and friends thought him mad, but while recuperating from a hunting accident, he diligently and independently set out to create a form of communication for own people __ (51) __ for other Indians. In 1821, after twelve years of work, he had __ (52) __developed a written language that would enable thousands of Indians to read and write.
Gunakan Petunjuk A dalam menjawab soal nomor 48 sampai nomor 52.
48. ...
(A) amused
(B) surprised
(C) interested
(D) fascinated
(E) motivated

49. ...
(A) Since
(B) Because
(C) Before
(D) However
(E) Although

50. ...
(A) illiterate
(B) innate
(C) immature
(D) imaginative
(E) illegitimate

51. ...
(A) as much as
(B) as soon as
(C) as well as
(D) as a result
(E) as long as

52. ...
(A) succeed
(B) success
(C) successful
(D) successfully
(E) succeeded

A very important world problem, if not the most serious of all the great world problems which affect us at the moment, is the increasing number of people who actually inhabit this planet. The limited amount of land and land resources will soon be unable to support the huge population if it continues to grow __ (54) __.

In an early survey conducted in 1888, a billion and a half people inhabited the earth. Now, the population __ (55) __ five billion and is growing fast - by the staggering figure of 90 million in 1988 alone. This means that the world __ (56) __ accommodate a new population roughly equal to that of the United States and Canada every three years. Even though the rate of growth has begun to slow down, most experts believe the population size will still pass eight billion during the next 50 years.

It is really due to the spread of the knowledge and __ (57) __. You have no doubt heard of the term "Birth Control" - "Death Control" is something rather different. It recognizes the work of the doctors and scientists who now keep alive people who, not very long ago, __ (58) __ of a variety of then incurable diseases. Through a wide variety of technological innovations that include farming methods and sanitation, as well as the control of these deadly diseases, we have found ways to reduce the rate __ (59) __ we die – creating a population explosion. We used to think that reaching seventy years old was a remarkable achievement, but now eighty or even ninety is becoming recognized as the normal life-span for humans. In a sense, this represents a tremendous achievement for __ (60) __ species. Biologically this is the very definition of success and we have undoubtedly become the dominant animal on the planet. However, this success is the very cause of the greatest threat to mankind.
Gunakan Petunjuk A dalam menjawab soal nomor 53 sampai nomor 60.
53. This sentence "So, why is this huge increase in
population taking place?" should be ....
(A) the first sentence of paragraph 1
(B) the last sentence of paragraph 1
(C) the first sentence of paragraph 2
(D) the first sentence of paragraph 3
(E) the last sentence of paragraph 3

54. ....
(A) at full speed
(B) at its present rate
(C) at its present pace
(D) in six figures
(E) in its present degree

55. ....
(A) exceeds
(B) exceeded
(C) exceed
(D) is exceeding
(E) would exceed

56. ....
(A) can
(B) may
(C) will
(D) had better
(E) must

57. ....
(A) practice of what is becoming known as "Death Control"
(B) what is becoming known practice of "Death Control"
(C) what is becoming known as the practice of "Death Control"
(D) practice at what is becoming known as "Death Control"
(E) practice what is becoming known of as "Death Control"

58. ....
(A) had died
(B) have died
(C) would have died
(D) will be dying
(E) died

59. ....
(A) that
(B) why
(C) how
(D) when
(E) at which

60. ....
(A) your
(B) their
(C) our
(D) its
(E) his

41. Jawab : B.
Pembahasan :
Pertanyaan seperti ini adalah pertanyaan yang menanyakan main idea. Main idea harus mencerminkan keseluruhan paragraph. Keseluruhan paragraph dicerminkan dari kalimat awal dan kalimat akhir paragraph. Dengan membaca dua kalimat awal dan kalimat akhir kita ketahui bahwa saat ini telah berkembang rekayasa genetika yang disatu sisi memberikan benefit (keuntungan) bagi manusia, namun di sisi lain banyak Negara yang melarang impor hasil rekayasa genetika ini. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa paragraph ini berisi tentang sisi baik dan sisi buruk rekayasa genetika.

42. Jawab: A.
Pembahasan :
Pertanyaan mengenai paragraph yang akan mengikuti dapat dijawab dengan melihat kalimat akhir paragraph tersebut, karena suatu teks yang baik adalah teks yang berhubungan antar paragrafnya. Kalimat terakhir dari paragraph tersebut menyatakan bahwa beberapa negara melarang impor terhadap jagung hasil rekayasa genetika karena bahaya yang dikandung di dalam jagung tersebut. Karenanya paragraph yang akan mengikuti paragraph tersebut akan berhubungan dengan efek buruk. Pilihan A mengandung ide yang berhubungan dengan efek buruk yaitu bagaimana menghindari efek buruk yang disebabkan oleh rekayasa genetika. Pilihan C pun berhubungan, namun ide rekayasa genetika yang ditawarkan paragraph ini sudah mengerucut pada gene splicing, karenanya pilihan A lebih tepat.

43. Jawab: C.
Pembahasan :
Title ataupun topik adalah ide utama dari sebuah teks. Untuk menjawab pertanyaan seperti ini, carilah gambaran umum dari keseluruhan teks terlebih dahulu, yaitu dengan membaca dua kalimat awal dan kalimat akhir dari setiap paragraph. Dengan membaca kalimat pertama, kedua dan terakhir dari paragraph pertama kita ketahui bahwa dengungan bumblebee biasanya menjadi ciri musim panas di Negara Inggris, tetapi dengungan ini semakin tak terdengar karena jumlahnya semakin menipis. Kemudian pula, bumblebee ini terancam kepunahan. Dengan membaca kalimat pertama, kedua dan terakhir dari paragraph kedua kita tahu tentang daur hidup bumblebee.  Dengan membaca kalimat pertama, kedua dan terakhir dari paragraph  ketiga kita ketahui bahwa salah satu faktor menurunnya populasi bumblebee dikarenakan menurunnya jumlah sumber makanan bumblebee dan juga ladang
tempat tumbuhnya sumber tersebut. Karenanya, dapat disimpulkan bahwa teks tersebut berisi tentang menurunnya populasi bumblebee (The Falling-Off Population of Bumblebees)

44. Jawab: C.
Pembahasan :
Pertanyaan mengenai infer … atau conclude …, senada dengan pertanyaan true false. Karenanya kita harus mencocokan apakah pernyataan dalam pilihan jawaban tercantum di teks atau tidak atau bertentangan atau tidak. Karena pada saat menjawab pertanyaan 43 kita sudah tahu bahwa daur hidup ada di paragraph ke-2, maka paragraph yang harus dibaca hanyalah paragraph ke-2. A. tidak tepat karena seharusnya female. In the spring a queen will make a new nest, lay eggs and then raise the first batch of workers.
B. tidak tepat, karena seharusnya hanya virgin bumblebees. the virgin queens who mate and then leave the nest to hibernate over winter.
C. tepat, karena kata ‘survive’ itu berarti (1) tetap bertahan meskipun hampir musnah seperti dalam kalimat ‘The plants may not survive the frost’ ataupun (2) tetap bertahan setelah seseorang telah tiada seperti dalam kalimat ‘The old lady has survived all her children’. Dari teks kita ketahui bahwa di musim panas tersebut semua bumblebee di dalam koloni itu musnah, kecuali ‘virgin queen’. Maka pilihan C tersebut tepat. Jika kita terjemahkan, maka, kalimat tersebut akan berbunyi: Para ‘virgin queen’ selamat dari musim panas dan kemudian melanjutkan reproduksi.
D. tidak tepat karena hanya virgin queen.
E. tidak tepat karena teks menyebutkan bahwa keberlangsungan siklus hidup tersebut tergantung pada pollen dan nectar.

45. Jawab: D.
Pembahasan :
A betul. Tercantum di paragraph 2 kalimat terakhir (if the colony has been successful and reaches a large enough size, the queen will produce male eggs and some female eggs are raised as new queens.)
B betul. Tercantum di kalimat yang sama.
C betul. Tercantum di kalimat pertama paragraph terakhir (A lack of resources is thought to be the critical factor that is affecting bumblebee populations, and it is related to the loss of wild flowers, both in the countryside and in vast areas of suburban gardens.)
D tidak tepat karena berlawanan dengan paragraph ke 3 (Although nectar is available from a wide range of plants, the bees can be much more choosy about where they collect pollen from, sometimes restricting this to very few flowering plants.) kata although menunjukkan bahwa kenyataannya akan berlawanan dengan kalimat tersebut.

46. Jawab: D.
Pembahasan :
Designate artinya memilih. Sehingga jawaban yang memungkinkan adalah chosen. Selain itu dari kata rencana pada ‘Action Plan’ kita dapat memperkirakan bahwa ‘designated’ berarti ‘chosen’.

47. Jawab: E.
Pembahasan :
Sebelum kalimat yang menjelaskan bilberry, dijelaskann tentang bumble bee yang pemilih (the bees can be much more choosy), jadi jawaban yang berhubungan adalah yang berhubungan dengan bumblebee yang pemilih (To give an example of bees which are very selective about source of pollen).

48. Jawab: D.
Pembahasan :
Amused kurang tepat karena amused biasanya untuk sesuatu yang menggembirakan dan biasanya diikuti oleh ‘at’. Surprised kurang tepat karena surprised biasanya untuk sesuatu yang mengejutkan dan biasanya diikuti oleh ‘at’. Interested kurang tepat karena interested artinya memang untuk sesuatu yang menarik perhatian, namun biasanya diikuti oleh ‘in’. Motivated kurang tepat karena motivated kurang tepat karena keterangan setelah kata ‘that’ tidak menjelaskan usaha yang ditimbulkan karena ‘talking leaf’ tersebut. Karenanya jawaban yang paling tepat adalah ‘fascinated’ karena fascinated berarti tertarik dan bisa diikuti oleh ‘by’.

49. Jawab: E.
Pembahasan :
Kata ‘believe’ dan ‘refuse’ menunjukkan bahwa kalimat utama bertentangan dengan anak kalimat. Ada 2 kata sambung yang menunjukkan pertentangan, namun yang paling tepat adalah meskipun (although).

50. Jawab: A.
Pembahasan :
Ada dua kata yang dapat dijadikan petunjuk dalam mengisi rumpang ini. Pertama, kata sambung but yang menandakan ada yang dipertentangkan. Kedua, kata alphabet yang menunjukan sesuatu yang berhubungan dengan tulisan. Sehingga, kata yang tepat adalah illiterate (buta huruf).

51. Jawab: C.
Pembahasan :
Di kalimat selanjutnya disebutkan untuk semua Indian. Karenanya kalimat tersebut menjelaskan Indian dimana dia tinggal dan Indian dari kelompok lainnya. Sehingga, kata yang tepat adalah ‘as well as’ yang berfungsi seperti kata sambung ‘dan’.

52. Jawab: D.
Pembahasan :
Rumpang berada di antara had dan verb, sehingga kata yang tepat adalah adverb, yaitu successfully.

53. Jawab: D.
Pembahasan :
Kata ‘due to’ (karena) menjadi kata kunci untuk jawaban ‘why’.

54. Jawab: B.
Pembahasan :
Full speed biasa digunakan untuk kecepatan kendaraan dan tidak cocok untuk pertumbuhan populasi. Kata lain untuk kecepatan yang lebih tepat untuk menggambarakan pertumbuhan populasi adalah ‘rate’. Selain itu kata ‘at the moment’ di paragraph pertama menunjukkan bahwa paragraph pertama ini ingin menunjukkan isu yang ada pada masa kini, karenanya kata present menjadi petunjuk untuk rumpang ini. Karenanya, yang paling tepat adalah ‘at its present rate’.

55. Jawab: A.
Pembahasan :
Walaupun pada kalimat sebelum rumpang ada kata ‘now’ karena kalimat berisi rumpang memperlihatkan perhitungan, maka kata kerja harus dalam bentuk simple. Selain hal – hal yang berhubungan dengan angka, kata – kata lain yang biasanya selalu dalam bentuk simple, yaitu senses/ perception, opinion, mental states, dan emotions/desires.

56. Jawab: E.
Pembahasan :
Pada kalimat sebelum rumpang disebutkan angka fantastis di tahun 1988. Diperlihatkannya angka ini bertujuan untuk memperlihatkan perkembangan dari tahun 1888 ke 1988. Jika kita perhatikan, kalimat berrumpang ingin membandingkan angka pertambahan populasi pertahun antara pertambahan populasi dunia dan pertambahan populasi di Amerika Serikat dan Kanada dimana pertambahan populasi dunia dalam 1 tahun akan menyamai pertambahan populasi di Amerika Serikat dan Kanada dalam 3 tahun. Sehingga, jawaban yang tepat adalah C (must). Kalimat tersebut dapat terjemahkan menjadi: Ini berarti bahwa dunia harus mengakomodasi populasi baru yang secara kasar menyamai populasi baru di Amerika Serikat dan Kanada setiap tiga tahun.

57. Jawab: A.
Pembahasan :
Kata sambung ‘and’ memiliki syarat kesetaraan. Artinya, jika sebelum ‘and’ terdapat ‘knowledge’ sebagai kata benda, maka setelah and juga harus sama. Maka, pilihan yang tepat adalah ‘practice’ dan karena knowledge dan practice adalah satu kesatuan, maka harus dilihat pula kata depan yang cocok dengan keduanya. Yang paling tepat adalah ‘of’. Sehingga pilihan yang paling tepat adalah ‘practice of ….’

58. Jawab: C.
Pembahasan :
Kalimat tersebut ingin memperlihatkan usaha yang telah dilakukan dengan pengontrolan angka kematian ‘death control’, yaitu dengan suksesnya menyelamatkan orang – orang yang mungkin dulu tidak mungkin terselamatkan.

59. Jawab: E.
Pembahasan :
Kata rate biasanya didahului atau diikuti oleh preposisi ‘at’

60. Jawab: C.
Pembahasan :

Kalimat sebelumnya menyebutkan human. maka yang tepat adalah ‘our’.

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