Soal dan Pembahasan SIMAK UI Bahasa Inggris 317

Floods are second only to fire as the most common of all natural disasters. They occur almost everywhere in the world, resulting in widespread damage and even death. Consequently, scientists have long tried to perfect their ability to predict floods. So far, the best that scientists can do is to recognize the potential for flooding in certain conditions. There are a number of conditions, from deep snow on the ground to human error, that cause flooding.

When deep snow melts, it creates a large amount of water. Although deep snow alone rarely causes floods, when it occurs together with heavy rain and sudden warmer weather, it can lead to serious flooding. If there is a fast snow melt on top of frozen or very wet ground, flooding is more likely to occur than when the ground is not frozen. Frozen ground or ground that is very wet and already saturated with water cannot absorb the additional water created by the melting snow. Melting snow also contributes to high water levels in rivers and streams. Whenever rivers are already at their full capacity of water, heavy rains will result in the rivers overflowing and flooding the surrounding land.

Rivers that are covered in ice can also lead to flooding. When ice begins to melt, the surface of the ice cracks and breaks into large pieces. These pieces of ice move and float down the river. They can form a dam in the river, causing the water behind the dam to rise and flood the land upstream. If the dam breaks suddenly, then the large amount of water held behind the dam can flood the areas downstream too.

Broken ice dams are not the only dam problems that can cause flooding. When a large human-made dam breaks or fails to hold the water collected behind it, the results can be devastating. Dams contain such huge amounts of water behind them that when sudden breaks occur, the destructive force of the water is like a great tidal wave. Unleashed dam waters can travel tens of kilometers, cover the ground in meters of mud and debris, and drown and crush every thing and creature in their path.

Although scientists cannot always predict exactly when floods will occur, they do know a great deal about when floods are likely, or probably, going to occur. Deep snow, ice-covered rivers, and weak dams are all strong conditions for potential flooding. Hopefully, this knowledge of why floods happen can help us reduce the damage they cause. (418)
Gunakan Petunjuk A dalam menjawab soal nomor 41 sampai nomor 45.
41. The word “ debris ” in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to _____.
(A) residue
(B) leftovers
(C) wreckage
(D) leavings
(E) garbage

42. The best title of the passage is _____.
(A) The Most Common Natural Disaster
(B) Potential Circumstances for Flooding
(C) Scientists’ Ability to Predict Floods
(D) Damages Caused by Flood
(E) Prevention of Potential Flooding

43. The purpose of the writer is _____.
(A) to criticize the scientists
(B) to ask for actions to help flooding victims
(C) to inform the readers on how to stop flooding
(D) to clarify the impacts of flooding
(E) to explain the conditions that can cause flooding

44. The following statement is TRUE according to the 2nd paragraph _____
(A) Flooding occurs when melting snow makes the level of a river rise.
(B) Melting deep snow together with heavy rain rarely cause flooding.
(C) Melting snow causes pieces of ice to block the river, which causes flooding.
(D) Pieces of ice move and float down the river, making the water too cold.
(E) Ground saturated by water will easily absorb melting snow.

45. It can be concluded from the text that the scientists _____.
(A) have come very close to knowing when floods will occur
(B) are required to provide some help when flooding occurs
(C) believe that flooding is the most common natural disaster
(D) have sufficient knowledge to recognize potential flooding conditions
(E) are trying to reduce damage caused by floods

Refugees are obviously not a new phenomenon. It has been said that Adam and Eve share the dubious honor of being the first refugees. In biblical times the Hebrews, to escape from slavery under the pharaos, fled from Egypt in one of the first recorded collective migrations. Throughout history, wars, invasions, and religious and political persecutions have left a trail of refugees and a  oncomitant acceptance of the right in churches, mosques, and other holy places. The 17th century Dutch jurist Hugo Grotius, himself a refugee, declared that “permanent residence ought not to be denied to oreigners who, expelled from their homes, are seeking a refuge, provided that they submit themselves to the established government and observe any regulations which are necessary to avoid strifes.” However, until the 20th century, there were no international agreements covering the right of asylum. Only in a few instances appropriate national legislation was enacted.
Gunakan Petunjuk A dalam menjawab soal nomor 46 sampai nomor 47.
46. The topic of this paragraph is ____.
(A) the predicament of refugees
(B) the development of refugees
(C) refugees’ right of permanent residence
(D) solution for refugees
(E) refugees over the ages

47. The paragraph following the passage most likely discusses _____.
(A) refugees’ loss of freedom
(B) examples of proper legislation regulating refugees
(C) the government’s act to ban refugees
(D) the fight of modern refugees
(E) new residence for refugees

Gunakan Petunjuk A dalam menjawab soal nomor 48 sampai nomor 55.
48. Having survived the impact of the international financial crisis, the insurance industry expects a steady growth in 2011. The italic phrase means _____ the insurance industry has survived the impact of the international financial crisis.
(A) although
(B) while
(C) because
(D) in order that
(E) whenever

49. The term ’rock’, ____ a shortened form of ’rock-and-roll’, was coined by an American
broadcaster to replace ’rhythm-and-blues’.
(A) it is
(B) which is
(C) for which
(D) which it is
(E) is

50. _____ is known by anyone rowing a boat in a strong wind.
(A) Whether it is easier to go with the wind than against it
(B) When it is easier to go with the wind than against it
(C) That it is easier to go with the wind than against it
(D) It is easier to go with the wind than against it
(E) Where it is easier to go with the wind than against it

51. Which response is NOT possible?
Rama: I finally finished the project I was working on.
Kris: _____
(A) I couldn’t have done better!
(B) What is your next project?
(C) You’ve been working very hard.
(D) Will you have completed it by tomorrow?
(E) It’s about time you finished it.

52. Renata: Do you know why Indi wasn’t in class this morning?
Indra: She ____ sick. She had a terrible headache last night.
(A) would rather be
(B) would have been
(C) must have been
(D) had better be
(E) should have been

53. Malnutrition among children ____ not only in low-income families but also among high-income
earners is caused by economic factors as well as the habits and lifestyle of parents.
(A) occur
(B) occurred
(C) they occur
(D) occurring
(E) to occur

54. _____ students studying in a foreign country are provided with information about literacy practices and academic culture of that country, they will feel stranded in that academic environment.
(A) As
(B) In order that
(C) Unless
(D) As soon as
(E) Where

55. Dani was extremely tired when he arrived, because he _________ for his flight for three hours.
(A) waited
(B) was waiting
(C) had waited
(D) had been waiting
(E) had been waited

Research has found that people sleep better at different times during their daily cycle. For example, some people function better if they go to sleep early and rise early, __ 56 __ others feel more rested if they stay up late and sleep in. Many people don’t pay attention to the __ 57 __ of their sleep. Yet delaying or __ 58 __ the time you go to sleep can have a major impact on how you feel when you wake up. The __ 59 __ of sleep the average adult needs each night also varies. Some people may be fine with six hours sleep, while others need up to nine hours per night. A scientist points out that
those who follow a __ 60 __ sleep schedule are more apt to function better on fewer hours, but she adds that most adults need at least six hours of sleep each night.
Gunakan Petunjuk A dalam menjawab soal nomor 56 sampai nomor 60.
56. ...
(A) when
(B) although
(C) since
(D) so that
(E) while

57. ...
(A) timing
(B) way
(C) effects
(D) habit
(E) regularity

58. ...
(A) alter
(B) altered
(C) altering
(D) alteration
(E) alternative

59. ...
(A) number
(B) total
(C) sum
(D) whole
(E) amount

60. ...
(A) regular
(B) regulator
(C) regularly
(D) regularity
(E) regulation
Pembahasan
41. Jawaban: (C)
PEMBAHASAN:
Kata debris berarti puing-puing atau reruntuhan, yang dalam hal ini dekat dengan arti wreckage (rongsokan/sisa-sisa barang yang rusak berat).

42. Jawaban: (B)
PEMBAHASAN:
Di dalam bacaan disebutkan bahwa para ilmuwan tidak selalu bisa memperkirakan kapan banjir akan terjadi (Scientist cannot always predict exactly when floods will occure- paragraf terakhir), yang terbaik bisa dilakukan hanya mengenali berbagai potensi banjir untuk kondisi tertentu (so far, the best that scientists can do is to recognize the potential for flooding in certain conditions – paragraph pertama)

43. Jawaban: (E)
PEMBAHASAN:
Penulis bermaksud memberitahu pembaca tentang berbagai kondisi yang dapat menyebabkan banjir, sebagaimana disebutkan pada paragraf pertama.

44. Jawaban: (A)
PEMBAHASAN:
Kalimat yang benar berdasarkan bacaan adalah bahwa banjir terjadi saat salju yang meleleh membuat ketinggiar air sungai meningkat. Hal ini disebutkan dalam paragraf 2: Melting snow also contributes to high water levels in rivers and streams.

45. Jawaban: (D)
PEMBAHASAN:
Dari bacaan dapat disimpulkan bahwa para ilmuwan saat ini telah memiliki pengetahuan yang cukup untuk mengenali berbagai potensi banjir.

46. Jawaban: (C)
PEMBAHASAN:
Topik paragraf di atas dapat disimpulkan dari dua kalimat terakhir, yaitu hak pengungsi untuk memiliki tempat tinggal permanen: However, until the 20th century, there were no international agreements covering the right of asylum.

47. Jawaban: (B)
PEMBAHASAN:
Paragraf di atas membahas hak-hak pengungsi untuk mendapatkan tempat tinggal yang permanen. Oleh karena itu, paragraf berikutnya yang masuk akal adalah membahas peraturan (regulation)yang menjamin pengungsi mendapatkan hak-haknya.

48. Jawaban: (C)
PEMBAHASAN:
Arti kalimat:
Setelah/karena bertahan dari pengaruh krisis keuanganinternasional, perusahaan asuransi  menargetkan pertumbuhan yang konstan sepanjang 2011.

49. Jawaban: (B)
PEMBAHASAN:
Arti kalimat: Istilah ‘rock’, yang merupakan (which is) bentuk ringkas dari ‘rock-and-roll’ pertama kali dipopulerkan oleh seorang penyiar Amerika untuk menggantikan “rhythm-and-blues’.

50. Jawaban: (C)
PEMBAHASAN:
Arti kalimat: Bahwa lebih mudah bergerak searah angin daripada berlawanan dengan angin (That it is easier to go with the wind than against it) sudah diketahui oleh siapa pun yang mendayung perahu dalam kondisi angin yang kuat.

51. Jawaban: (D)
PEMBAHASAN:
Arti kalimat: Rama: Akhirnya aku menyelesaikan proyek yang tengah aku kerjakan (Rama sedang bercerita kejadian di masa lalu, artinya proyek yang ia kerjakan sudah selesai di masa lalu)
Jadi respon yang tidak mungkin adalah: “Bisakah kau selesaikan proyek itu menjelang besok?” (Kan udah selesai?)

52. Jawaban: (C)
PEMBAHASAN:
Arti kalimat: Renata: Tahukah kamu kenapa Indi tidak masuk kelas pagi ini? Indra: Dia pastilah (must have been) sakit. Dia sakit kepala parah tadi malam.

53. Jawaban: (D)
PEMBAHASAN:
Arti kalimat: Gizi buruk pada anak-anak yang terjadi (occurring) tidak hanya terjadi pada keluarga berpenghasilan rendah tapi juga pada mereka yang berpenghasilan tinggi disebabkan oleh faktor-faktor ekonomi dan juga kebiasaan dan gaya hidup orang tuanya. Kata occurring di atas setara dengan ungkapan which occur

54. Jawaban: (C)
PEMBAHASAN:
Arti kalimat: Jika pelajar yang tengah belajar di negara lain tidak dibekali dengan informasi tentang kemampuan membaca dan menulis serta budaya akademis di negara tersebut, mereka akan merasa terasing dalam lingkungan akademik itu.
Unless = jika tidak, dengan formula:
Unless + S + V1 + O1, S + will + V2 + O2

55. Jawaban: (D)
PEMBAHASAN:
Arti kalimat: (ini adalah penuturan di masa lalu) “Dani sangat lelah ketika ia sampai, karena ia telah menunggu (had been waiting) penerbangan selama tiga jam.  Bentuk past perfect continous tense digunakan untuk pekerjaan yang telah terjadi dan masing berlangsung dalam kejadian di masa lalu, biasanya dicirikan dengan kata for (for three hours)

56. Jawaban: (E)
PEMBAHASAN:
Arti kalimat: Sebagai contoh, sebagian merasa fit jika mereka pergi tidur lebih awal dan bangun lebih awal, sementara (while) yang lain lebih enak jika tetap terjaga hingga larut dan bangun lebih siang.

57. Jawaban: (A)
PEMBAHASAN:
Arti kata: Banyak orang tidak terlalu peduli pada pengaturan waktu (timing) tidur mereka.

58. Jawaban: (C)
PEMBAHASAN:
Arti kalimat: Baik menunda atau mengubah (altering) waktu untuk pergi tidur dapat memberikan pengaruh besar pada apa yang Anda rasakan saat bangun. Bentuk Yet … or … harus memiliki bentuk setara. Delaying berbentuk gerund, sehingga pasangannya pun harus berbentuk gerund (altering)

59. Jawaban: (E)
PEMBAHASAN:
Arti kalimat: Jumlah (amount) tidur yang dibutuhkan oleh rata-rata orang dewasa tiap malam bermacam-macam.

60. Jawaban: ()
PEMBAHASAN:
Arti kalimat: Seorang ilmuwan menekankan bahwa mereka yang mengikuti jadwal tidur yang teratur (regular) berkemungkinan merasa fit daripada yang tidur lebih sedikit, namun ia menambahkan bahwa kebanyakan orang dewasa memerlukan paling sedikit enam jam tidur setiap malam.

Keterangan: kata di depan kata benda ( a … sleep) pastilah berbentuk kata sifat (regular)

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