Soal dan Pembahasan SIMAK UI Bahasa Inggris 333

(1) The factor that determines whether ozone is good or bad is its location. (2) Ozone is "good" when it is in the stratosphere. (3) The stratosphere is a layer of the atmosphere starting at the level of about 6 miles (about 10 kilometers) above sea level. (4) The stratosphere naturally contains about six parts per million of ozone. (5) This ozone is very beneficial because it absorbs UV radiation and prevents it from reaching us. (6) When it is at ground level, in contrast, ozone is "bad". (7) Ozone is a very reactive gas that is hard on lung tissue. (8) It also damages plants and buildings. (9)Any ozone at ground level is a problem. (10) Unfortunately, chemicals in car exhaust and chemicals produced by some industries react with light to produce lots of ozone at ground level. (11) In cities, the ozone level can rise to a point where it becomes hazardous to our health. (12) That’s when you hear about an ozone warning on the news. (13) To protect yourself from ozone exposure, you should be aware of the Air Quality Index (AQI) in your area every day.
Gunakan Petunjuk A dalam menjawab soal nomor 41 sampai nomor 42.
41. Which of the following sentences is irrelevant?
(A) Sentence 5.
(B) Sentence 7.
(C) Sentence 8.
(D) Sentence 12.
(E) Sentence 13.

42. The paragraph should end with ...
(A) These facts show that ozone can be found in different layers of atmosphere.
(B) Thus, the position of the ozone decides if it is consider advantageous or disadvantageous to human.
(C) Since ozone is dangerous, many pharmaceutical companies manufacture a variety of health
products.
(D) In conclusion, the composition of ozone can either be beneficial or dangerous to our health.
(E) It is clear that chemicals produced by human worsen the condition of ozone in the atmosphere.

Some people express their personal philosophies by tattooing themselves with phrases like "Live Hard" or "Love Thy Neighbor." Others consider tattoos a way of displaying their taste in art. They might tattoo a William Blake’s etching or a Georgia O’Keeffe’s flower on some part of their bodies. But in different cultures and eras, tattoos have also (43)_____ religious purposes. Mexico’s Mayan people expressed their religious beliefs by tattooing themselves with (44)_____ of jaguars, snakes, turtles, and toads. Some Native American tribes used tattooing for (45)_____ purposes, believing that tattoos would ward off illness. The Cree, for instance, would tattoo a cross on each cheek to protect
against toothaches, and members of the Ojibwa tribe tattooed small circles on their temples to prevent headaches. Throughout history tattooing has been widely used as a means of identification. Before 787 AD, early Christians used tattoos to identify members of their faith. (46)_____, members of the military or fraternities may have themselves tattooed to (47)_____ show their commitment. Some cultures have tattooed prisoners, the most sinister example being the Nazis, who tattooed numbers on the arms of concentration camp victims during World War II.
Gunakan Petunjuk A dalam menjawab soal nomor 43 sampainomor 47.
43. ....
(A) provided
(B) offered
(C) revealed
(D) served
(E) covered

44. ....
(A) images
(B) models
(C) portraits
(D) epitomes
(E) depictions

45. ....
(A) medicine
(B) medical
(C) medicated
(D) medication
(E) medicinal

46. ....
(A) Nevertheless
(B) Similarly
(C) In summary
(D) Therefore
(E) However

47. ....
(A) published
(B) public
(C) publish
(D) publicity
(E) publicly

Alligators, which often engage in violent fights over territories and mates, have made scientists puzzled why their wounds rarely get infected. Now researchers think the secret lies in the reptiles’ blood. Chemists in Louisiana found that blood from the American alligator can successfully destroy 23 strains of bacteria, including strains known to be resistant to antibiotics. In addition, the blood was able to deplete and destroy a significant amount of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Study co-author Lancis Darville at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge believes that peptides – fragments of
proteins – within alligator blood help the animals stop fatal infections. Such peptides are also found in the skin of frogs and toads, as well as komodo, dragons and crocodiles. The scientists think that these peptides could one day lead to medicines that would provide humans with the same antibiotic protection. ’We are in the process of separating and identifying the specific peptides in alligator blood,’ said Darville. ’Once we sequence these peptides, we can obtain their chemical structure to potentially create new drugs.’ Study co-author Mark Merchant, a biochemist at Mc Neese State University in Lake Charles, Louisiana, was among the first to notice alligators’ unusual resistance. He was intrigued that, despite living in swampy environments where bacteria thrive, alligators that suffered frequent scratches and bruises rarely developed fatal infections. Merchant therefore created human and alligator serum-protein-rich blood plasma that has been able to remove clotting agents,
and exposed each of them to 23 strains of bacteria. Human serum destroyed only eight of the bacterial strains while the alligator serum killed all 23. When the alligator was exposed to HIV, the researchers found that a good amount of the virus was destroyed. The study team thinks that pills and creams containing alligator peptides could be available at level pharmacies within seven to ten years. Such products would be a solution to patients that need extra help preventing infections, such
as diabetes patients with foot ulcers, burn victims and people suffering from auto-immune diseases. However, there may be potential problems before alligator-based medicines can reach drugstore shelves. For example, initial tests have revealed that higher concentrations of the alligator serum tend to be toxic to human cells.
Gunakan Petunjuk A dalam menjawab soal nomor 48 sampai nomor 52.
48. The tone of this passage is ...
(A) discouraging.
(B) touching.
(C) positive.
(D) concerned.
(E) alarming.

49. Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE about peptides within alligators’ blood?
(A) They are fragments of proteins.
(B) They may stop fatal infections.
(C) They are injected in the human body.
(D) They are within the blood of reptiles.
(E) They have the same function as antibiotics.

50. The followings are what Merchant, the biochemist, experienced EXCEPT that he ...
(A) developed two kinds of serum, each can destroy 23 strains of bacteria.
(B) learned why alligators can survive in bacterial environments.
(C) became interested in alligators’ resistance to infections.
(D) created a serum which can remove things that cause clotting.
(E) found out that crocodiles can decrease infection caused by HIV.

51. The word ’revealed’ in line 23 is closest in meaning to ...
(A) told.
(B) concealed.
(C) exposed.
(D) disclosed.
(E) released.

52. The writer concludes his essay by saying that ...
(A) scientists are now searching for a medicine against HIV.
(B) alligators have contributed a lot to stop human life.
(C) reptiles have peptides which can be used as serum.
(D) peptides in the blood are only found in American alligators.
(E) alligator serum has the possibility to harm human beings.

Two French researchers have recently proposed the first ever model explaining how the great majority of regular satellites in our solar system were formed out of planet rings. The model, the only one of its kind, (54)_____ in 2010 on Saturn’s moons. It seems to account for the present distribution of "giant" planets and also explains how the satellites of the "terrestrial" planets such as Earth or Pluto came into being. These results are a major step forward in understanding and (55)_____ the formation of planet systems across the universe. There is a (56)_____, such as Jupiter and Saturn, and the terrestrial plants, such as Earth or Pluto. Whereas the giants are surrounded by rings and a myriad of small natural satellites, the terrestrial planets have few moons, or just one, and no rings. Until now, two models (57)_____ to explain the presence of regular satellites in our solar system. These indicate that the satellites of the terrestrial planets like Earth or Pluto were formed following a giant collision.
They also indicate that the satellites of the giant planets were formed in a nebula (58)_____ the planet. They do not, however, account for the specific distribution and chemical composition of the satellites orbiting the giant planets. In 2010 and 2011, a French research team developed a new model to describe how Saturn’s moons came into being based on numerical simulations and Cassini probe data. The researchers discovered that Saturn’s rings, (59)_____ are very thin disks made up of small blocks of ice surrounding the planet, in turn gave birth to ice satellites. This is due to the fact that the rings spread over time and, when they reach a certain distance from the planet (known as the Roche
limit or Roche radius), (60)_____ ends agglomerate and form small bodies that break off and move away. This is how rings give birth to satellites orbiting the planet.
Gunakan Petunjuk A dalam menjawab soal nomor 53 sampai nomor 60.
53. This sentence "Another theory, therefore, seemed necessary." should be put as ...
(A) the last sentence of paragraph 1.
(B) the first sentence of paragraph 2.
(C) the last sentence of paragraph 2.
(D) the first sentence of paragraph 3.
(E) the last sentence of paragraph 3.

54. ....
(A) first tested
(B) to first test
(C) first testing
(D) was first tested
(E) had first tested

55. ....
(A) explain
(B) explains
(C) explained
(D) to explain
(E) explaining

56. ....
(A) fundamental difference between giant planet systems
(B) difference between giant planet fundamental systems
(C) giant fundamental system between different planets
(D) planet system difference between giant fundamental difference
(E) giant planet difference between fundamental systems

57. ....
(A) have been commonly used
(B) had been commonly used
(C) will be commonly used
(D) were commonly used
(E) are commonly used

58. ....
(A) surrounding
(B) surrounded
(C) will surround
(D) which surround
(E) which surrounded

59. ....
(A) that
(B) which
(C) who
(D) when
(E) where

60. ....
(A) it
(B) its
(C) it’s
(D) they
(E) their

PEMBAHASAN
41. Jawab : D
Pembahasan :
Semua kalimat berisikan tentang fakta ilmiah, namun kalimat nomor 12 ini tidak berisi fakta ilmiah.

42. Jawab : B
Pembahasan :
Untuk melihat isi dari suatu paragraf secara keseluruhan, kita harus membaca kalimat pertama, kedua dan terakhir. Pada kalimat pertama, kita ketahui bahwa ozone dapat diketahui baik atau tidak berdasarkan dimana dia ditemukan. Ozone dikatakan baik jika ada di lapisan stratosphere, yaitu lapisan udara 10 km di atas laut. Dari kalimat terakhir kita ketahui untuk mengetahui apakah ada ozone atau tidak di sekitar kita, kita harus sadar dengan indek kualitas udara di sekitar kita. Maka jawaban yang paling tepat adalah B (Letak ozon menentukan apakah berguna atau tidak untuk manusia)

43. Jawab : D
Pembahasan :
Untuk menjawab pilihan kata yang tepat, maka cara yang paling mudah adalah dengan menerjemahkannya satu persatu. Pilihan A (Tato juga menyediakan tujuan relijius.) dan B (Tato juga menawarkan tujuan relijius.) kurang tepat karena kedua kata ini mengisyaratkan ada manfaat yang diambil oleh si pelaku. Sedangkan pilihan C (Tato juga mengungkapkan tujuan relijius.) juga kurang tepat karena kata mengungkapkan mengandung arti ada sesuatu yang disembunyikan. Pilihan E (Tato juga meliputi tujuan relijius.) juga kurang tepat karena kata meliputi mengandung arti semua tujuan relijius sudah dapat dipenuhi dengan tato. Kata yang tepat untuk mengisi rumpang ini adalah D (Tato juga memenuhi tujuan relijius.). Sesuatu yang berhubungan dengan agama, mensyaratkan penghambaan, dan ini dapat dipenuhi dengan kata served (D).

44. Jawab : A
Pembahasan :
Kata yang diinginkan adalah gambar. Jika kita artikan satu persatu:
(A) images = gambar
(B) models = contoh
(C) portraits = potret, lebih spesifik pada wajah
(D) epitomes = lambang, contoh
(E) depictions = gambaran
Maka jawaban yang tepat adalah A

45. Jawab : E
Pembahasan :
Dengan melihat kata setelah rumpang (purposes), maka kita ketahui bahwa kata yang diinginkan adalah kata sifat. Maka, kata yang memungkinkan adalah medical dan medicinal. Kata medicinal adalah kata yang lebih umum dari medical. Karenanya, jawaban yang lebih tepat adalah medicinal (E).

46. Jawab : B
Pembahasan :
Pilihan A dan E bernada sama, berarti pilihan mengerucut pada B, C dan D. Dari teks kita Mengetahui bahwa Christians menggunakan tato dan pada kalimat berisi rumpang diketahui bahwa orang militer juga menggunakan tato berarti dapat disimpulkan bahwa kalimat rumpang menginginkan perbandingan. Maka jawaban yang tepat adalah similarly (B).

47. Jawab : E
Pembahasan :
Sebelum rumpang muncul to dan setelah rumpang muncul kata kerja (to ____ verb) maka rumpang harus diisi dengan adverb, yaitu kata yang berakhiran –ly (E).

48. Jawab : C
Pembahasan :
Pertanyaan tentang tone untuk artikel ilmiah biasanya ada 3 pilihan yang harus dilihat positif, negative dan netral. Sedangkan pilihan lainnya boleh direduksi. Karena dari ketiga pilihan tadi hanya ada positive, maka C lah jawaban yang tepat.
(A) discouraging = melemahkan semangat
(B) touching = menyentuh.
(C) positive = positif
(D) concerned = gelisah
(E) alarming = mengkhawatirkan.

49. Jawab : C
Pembahasan :
Pilihan B dan E memiliki arti yang senada. Bila suatu zat dapat melawan infeksi, maka zat tersebut bisa dianggap sebagai antibiotic. Pilihan A dan D saling mendukung. pada kalimat pertama paragraf ke-2 disebutkan bahwa peptide itu dapat kita temukan dalam darah. Maka, jawaban yang benar adalah C.

50. Jawab : A
Pembahasan :
Untuk mencari pernyataan yang salah, maka yang harus dilakukan adalah mencocokan apakah setiap
pilihan sesuai dengan teks ataukah tidak. Dengan cara ini, kita dapat melihat bahwa pilihan A tidak sesuai dengan teks karena serum yang ditemukan oleh Merchant hanya satu macam saja. Maka, A adalah jawaban yang tepat.

51. Jawab : D
Pembahasan :
Bila kita artikan, maka:
Revealed = memperlihatkan. Sedangkan dalam pilihan:
(A) told = memberitahukan
(B) concealed = menyembunyikan
(C) exposed = membuka, menyingkap, membawa ke hadapan publik
(D) disclosed= memperlihatkan, menyingkap, sehingga suatu informasi dapat diketahui
(E) released= melepaskan
Dari sini kita ketahui, jawaban yang tampaknya memungkinkan adalah C dan D. Namun, karena pada
kalimat baris ke-23 tersebut, tidak disebutkan mengenai pengumuman ke hadapan public, maka, jawaban yang tepat adalah D.

52. Jawab : E
Pembahasan :
Pertanyaan semacam ini (apa yang dapat kita simpulkan dari teks) sama dengan pertanyaan yang
menanyakan jawaban mana yang benar. Maka yang harus dilakukan seperti halnya pada nomor 50, yaitu mencocokan apakah setiap pilihan sesuai dengan teks ataukah tidak. Didapatkan bahwa pilihan E senada dengan teks dimana pada kalimat terakhir disebutkan bahwa serum alligator cenderung menjadi racun bagi tubuh manusia.

53. Jawab : C
Pembahasan :
"Another theory, therefore, seemed necessary." menyiratkan adanya kekurangan dari teori sebelumnya. Dari setiap pilihan jawaban, pilihan C dan D memungkinkan karena berkaitan dengan kekurangan dari teori sebelumnya yang disebutkan di kalimat akhir paragraf ke-2 :
They do not, however, account for the specific distribution and chemical composition of the satellites orbiting the giant planets. (Namun kedua model ini tidak menjelaskan distribus khusus dan komposisi kimia dari satelit – satelit yang mengorbit planet – planet raksasa.) Kata therefore tidak bisa muncul begitu saja di awal kalimat. Kalimat yang mengandung therefore harus berkaitan dengan kalimat sebelumnya. Maka, jawaban yang tepat adalah C.

54. Jawab : D
Pembahasan :
Karena kalimat rumpang menyebutkan tahun, maka tense yang dibutuhkan adalah past tense (A dan D). Selanjutnya kita harus melihat apakah kalimat menginginkan bentuk aktif atau pasif. Karena model biasanya diujikan maka jawaban yang tepat adalah ‘was first tested’ (D).

55. Jawab : E
Pembahasan :
Karena sebelum and muncul kata kerja berakhiran –ing maka rumpang harus diisi dengan kata kerja
berakhiran –ing. Jawaban yang tepat adalah explaining (E).

56. Jawab : A
Pembahasan :
Setelah rumpang disebutkan Jupiter dan Saturnus, berarti salah satu bagiannya harus menyebutkan
tentang giant planet. Sedang di kalimat setelahnya ada kalimat while yang memperlihatkan perbedaan
(difference). Fundamental sendiri berarti mendasar. Maka frase yang tepat adalah fundamental difference between giant planet systems (A)

57. Jawab : A
Pembahasan :
Until now mencirikan perfect tense, maka pilihan yang tepat adalah have been used (A).

58. Jawab : A
Pembahasan :
Kalimat ini (They also indicate that the satellites of the giant planets were formed in a nebula /Hal – hal tersebut juga mengindikasikan bahwa satelit – satelit dari planet – planet raksasa tersebut berbentuk nebula) sudah lengkap, maka yang diperlukan adalah keterangan tambahan yang diawali oleh which atau that. Sehingga keterangan tambahannya akan menjadi which surrounds. Keterangan tambahan yang diawali which ini dapat disingkat dengan cara menghilangkan which dan mengganti bentuk kata kerja menjadi berakhiran –ing. Sehingga jawaban yang tepat adalah surrounding (A)

59. Jawab : B
Pembahasan :
Cincin saturnus itu bukan manusia sehingga correlative conjunction yang diperlukan adalah which atau that. Namun, that tidak boleh diawali oleh koma. Maka, jawaban yang tepat adalah which (B).

60. Jawab : E
Pembahasan :
Setelah rumpang muncul kata benda ends, maka yang diperlukan adalah kata ganti kepunyaan
(possessive: my, your, his, her, their, its). Sebelum koma terdapat kalimat when they reach, berarti subjek kalimatnya adalah they, maka kata ganti possessive yang diperlukan adalah their (E).

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