Rabu, 30 Januari 2019

Analytical and Hortatory Exposition: Materi dan Soal-Pembahasan

Purpose of the Text :
To persuade the readers that something should or shouldn’t be the case.

Tujuan Penulisan :

Memberikan pendapat/ide dari penulis tentang suatu topik atau permasalahan
Generic Structure (Struktur Umum) :
1. Menggunakan Simple Present Tense
2. Menggunakan connectives/transitions
3. Menggunakan action verbs and adjectives

Terdapat dua jenis eksposisi :

1. Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analisis)
a. Penulis memberikan opini dan tidak berusaha membujuk pembaca untuk menjadi pro/kontra.
b. Nama lainnya adalah Argumentative.
c. Umumnya berisi tentang permasalahan umum seperti flood, traffic jam, pollution, etc.
d. Generic Structure (Struktur Umum):
1. Thesis: pernyataan penulis tentang suatu kasus
2. Argument: inti/poin perbincangan dan penjelasan dari poin/inti
3. Reiteration: penguatan dari pernyataan

2. Hortatory Exposition

a. Penulis memberikan opini dan berusaha membujuk pembaca untuk pro/kontra.
b. Nama lainnya adalah Persuasive.
c. Generic Structure (Struktur Umum):
1. Thesis: pernyataan penulis tentang suatu kasus
2. Argument: alasan tentang adanya kepedulian dan mengarah ke saran/ rekomendasi
3. Recommendation: pernyataan alasan/bagaimana sesuatu seharusnya dilakukan/tidak dilakukan

CONTOH SOAL


Text 1: SBMPTN 2013 Kode Soal 613

Passage A
School is necessary because it, first, makes communication with diverse people essential, as parents do not choose where their children go, and secondly, homeschooling and extracurricular activities connected to it cannot bring that diversity, for the attending group is self-selecting, rather than‘unfiltered mixture’. I believe that none of the two assumptions is warranted nor true.
Inthefirstplace, parentsstillselectschoolsfortheirchildrenonthebasisofcommonvalues, cultures and achievements. As such, public schools then offer obvious misrepresentations of the society.
Not only that, I think it’s non-sense that homeschooling should somehow get rid of diversity from socialization in sports teams or other clubs. What members of a basketball team or a debate club share is not race, religion, nor income bracket: it is the desire to participate.

Passage B

Children can perhaps be best described as beings of potential during their schools years. Each child is in the process of discovering their talents and having them be cared for in an attempt to best reach self-actualization.
Under the homeschooling system parents become much more exclusive mentors to a child, and this can be problematic. Although parents are generally aware of what their children is capable of, their evaluations are not always precise.


1. The common theme underlying both passages above is ….
A. arguments against home school education practices
B. evidence of several problems with homeschooling
C. reasons why homeschooling should be eliminated
D. failure which is associated with homeschooling
E. formal school and home school education

Pembahasan :

Pada passage A terdapat kalimat yang mengatakan bahwa “… I think it’s non-sense that homeschoolingshouldsomehow get rid of diversity fromsocialization in sports teams or other clubs.” Begitu pula sebaliknya pada passage B ditemukan tentang berbagai kontra terkait dengan adanya homeschooling dalam bidang pendidikan. Sehingga kalimat yang paling tepat mencakup kedua passage tersebut adalah jawaban (A).

Jawaban: A


2. Which of the following statements reflects a fact mentioned in either passage above?
A. Joining a social club is a matter of wish to participate.
B. Interacting with other individuals is very important.
C. Children are individuals with inborn capacity.
D. Sports teams are a form of social unit.
E. Parents play a role as a private guru.

Pembahasan :

Melaluikalimat “Whatmembersofabasketballteamoradebateclubshareisnotrace, religion, nor income bracket: it is the desire to participate.” Pada passage A, dapat dikatakan bahwa faktanya seringkali bukan hanya sekadar mengikuti sebuah klub atau menjadi bagian dari sebuah tim yang diinginkan seorang anak, namun lebih kepada keinginannya untuk berpartisipasi dan bersosialisasi dengan lingkungan mereka sendiri. Dan hal tersebutlah yang tercermin pada kedua bacaan di atas.

Jawaban: A


3. The idea in passage B which is different from that in passage A is ….
A. thoughts that schools are a medium for individual to socialize freely
B. the need to join social events not diversity that homeschoolers seek
C. parents limited understanding of their children’s potentials and talents

D. parents personal preference to a certain type of school for their children
E. wrong assumptions on both home school education and homeschooling

Pembahasan :

Pada passage B dikatakan bahwa orangtua cenderung memiliki pemahaman yang terbatas terhadap potensi serta bakat yang dimiliki oleh anak-anak mereka. Sehingga, seringkali apa yang menjadi keinginan orangtua menjadi tidak sejalan dengan bakat yang dimiliki oleh anak-anak mereka. Maka, jawaban yang paling mencerminkan passage B adalah jawaban (C).

Jawaban: C


4. The best summary of both passages is ….
A. ideas of school and home school learning are wrong; yet, school is better
B. schools are the right medium for socializing; yet, parents are still selective
C. there is no rational support to believe education at home and at school
D. children are going their ways to develop their talents and personality
E. parents and teachers make inaccurate evaluation on children’ s talents

Pembahasan :

Kesimpulan yang paling tepat untuk kedua bacaan di atas, terlepas dari permasalahan homeschooling dan bakat yang cenderung salah diarahkan, adalah sekolah merupakan media yang paling tepat bagi anak uuntuk bersosialisasi; meskipun tidak dapat dipungkiri bahwa orangtua pun masih tetap selektif dalam memilih sekolah yang terbaik bagi mereka.

Jawaban: B


5. If a child’s parents are not able to identify the child’s talents comprehensively, a home school child’s basketball talent will ….
A. never be revealed until the right expert can reveal the child’s talent
B. grow normally because somebody’s talent is not affected by anyone else
C. grow little and later it may stop growing at all as there is a little stimulation
D. remain undeveloped because none is able to reveal the child’s potential
E. still grow in so far he/she has the need to partake in a basketball team

Pembahasan :

Jika orangtua tidak mampu mengenali bakat dan talenta yang dimiliki dengan baik, maka bakat tersebut akan menjadi hal yang sia-sia dan tidak dapat berkembang karena tidak ada yang mampu mengembangkan bakat yang dimiliki selain individu itu sendiri.

Jawaban: D


Text 2: SBMPTN 2013-TKDU Kode Soal 325
Passage A
For those of you now eyeing your cell-phones suspiciously, it is worth nothing that both the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the World Health Organization (WHO) say there is no evidence to support the assertion that cell-phones are a public health threat. But a number of scientists are worried that has been a dangerous rush to declare cell-phones safe, using studies they feel are inadequate and too often weighted towards the wireless industry interests. An analysis published by University of Washington neurologist Henry Lai determined that far more independent studies than industry—funded studies have found at least some type of biological effects from cell-phone exposure.
A strong link between mobiles and cancer could have major public-health implications. As cell-phones make and take calls, they emit low-level-radio-frequency (RF radiation). Stronger than FM radio signals, these RF waves are still a billionth the intensity of known carcinogenic radiation like X-ray. (www.time.com)

Passage B

A study published in the journal Bioelectromagnetics reported that no statistically significant change in the incidence of brain cancers in men and women in England between 1998 and 2007, a time when cell-phones use increased dramatically.
Butnow, newworkpublishedthisweekinthe Journalofthe American Medical Association says there is an identifiable effect of cell-phones use in the brain, but it is too early to tell what, if anything, that effect means health-wise.
Therehasbeenalotofcontroversyofwhethercell-phonescouldincreasethetemperature of the brain, which in turn could affect energy requirements.
Based on our study, we really cannot infer whether this is a bad or could even have potentially good applications so that—our finding doesn’t illuminate or enlighten that very important question or whether cell-phone exposure could have detrimental effects. ( www. npr.org)
6. Which of the following reflects opinions mentioned in the both passages?
A. There was no increase of brain cancer patients in men and women between 1998- 2007.
B. Statements by NCI and WHO on safe use of cell phones have led to a dangerous rush.
C. There is some type of biological effects from mobile phone exposure.
D. Radiation emitted by X-rays is carcinogenic.
E. Mobile phones emit deadly radiation.

Pembahasan :

Pada kedua bacaan tersebut sama-sama memiliki keterkaitan yakni keduanya menyatakan bahwa terdapat beberapa efek biologis akibat terkena paparan radiasi dari penggunaan telepon selular yang berlangsung terus-menerus.

Jawaban: C


7. Information in both passages may lead to a hypothesis that ….
A. uncontrolled use of mobile phones will increase carcinogenic stuff in user’s brain
B. regular use of mobile cell-phones will increase biological defects not just in the brain
C. the increasing use of mobile phones will result in detrimental effects of their users.
D. careless use of mobile phones will increase levels of brains energy consumptions.
E. frequent use of mobile phones will increase the radiation accumulation in the brain.

Pembahasan :

Hypothesis adalah suatu prediksi atau perkiraan atas sesuatu yang sedang diamati saat ini. Dalam hal ini, penggunaan telepon selular secara terus-menerus tanpa disadari, cepat ataupun lambat, akan memberikan dampak yang sangat besar bagi kesehatan terutama pada otak. Radiasi yang timbul akibat penggunaan telepon selular secara berkala akan mengakibatkan kerusakan pada otak, syaraf, atau bahkan kanker otak.

Jawaban: E


8. The topic discussed in both passages above is ….
A. the increase in the brain cancer incidences by the mobile phones radiations
B. inconclusive empirical findings on the impact of the use of mobile phones
C. recent research findings on radiation by mobile phones on brain damage
D. arguments against frequent uses of mobile phones for health reasons
E. issues on the impact of using mobile phones on one state’s health

Pembahasan :

Topik yang terdapat pada kedua bacaan di atas adalah tentang hasil penelitian yang dilakukan baru-baru ini yang mana hasilnya cukup mencengangkan yakni betapa besar bahaya penggunaan telepon selular bagi otak, bahkan dapat menyebabkan kanker dan penyakit lainnya.

Jawaban: C


9. Both passages are similar in content in terms of addressing ….
A. relation between mobile phones and health
B. recent research evidence on cell-phones uses
C. mobile phones potential effects of mobile phone use on users’ brain
D. mobile phone use in triggering the brain cancer
E. finding the research on the use of mobile phones
Pembahasan :
Kedua paragraf di atas memiliki persamaan yakni membahas efek yang ditimbulkan oleh telepon selular terhadap otak penggunanya.

Jawaban: C

Show comments
Hide comments


EmoticonEmoticon